Drought monitoring maps: Europe and Mediterranean region – November 2022

SPEI 1 month
SPEI 3 months
SPEI 12 months
SPEI 1 month
SPEI 3 months
SPEI 12 months

What is the SPEI (Standardised Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index)?


  • Vicente-Serrano S.M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno, (2010) A Multi-scalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index – SPEI. Journal of Climate 23: 1696-1718.
  • Beguería, S., Vicente-Serrano, S.M. y Angulo, M., (2010): A multi-scalar global drought data set: the SPEIbase: A new gridded product for the analysis of drought variability and impacts. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 91, 1351-1354
  • Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Beguería, S., López-Moreno, J.I., Angulo, M., El Kenawy, A. (2010): A new global 0.5° gridded dataset (1901-2006) of a multiscalar drought index: comparison with current drought index datasets based on the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 11: 1033-1043
  • Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Beguería, S. and Juan I. López-Moreno (2011). Comment on “Characteristics and trends in various forms of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) during 1900-2008” by A. Dai. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere. 116, D19112, doi:10.1029/2011JD016410
  • Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Santiago Beguería, Jorge Lorenzo-Lacruz, Jesús Julio Camarero, Juan I. López-Moreno, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Jesús Revuelto, Enrique Morán-Tejeda and Arturo Sánchez-Lorenzo. (2012) Performance of drought índices for ecological, agricultural and hydrological applications. Earth Interactions 16, 1-27.
  • Beguería, S., Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Fergus Reig, Borja Latorre. Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) revisited (2014): parameter fitting, evapotranspiration models, kernel weighting, tools, datasets and drought monitoring. International Journal of Climatology, 34: 3001-3023
  • Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Gerard Van der Schrier, Santiago Beguería, Cesar Azorin-Molina, Juan-I. Lopez-Moreno (2015). Contribution of precipitation and reference evapotranspiration to drought indices under different climates. Journal of Hydrology 426: 42-54.
  • Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Beguería, S., (2016) Comment on “Candidate Distributions for Climatological Drought Indices (SPI and SPEI)” by James H. Stagge et al. International Journal of Climatology.36: 2120-213

The drought monitoring maps are licensed under CC BY 3.0

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